Roshni Act: Understanding the Contours of the Land Development Scheme of J&K

The Jammu and Kashmir State Lands (Vesting of Ownership to the Occupants) Act, 2001 was enacted to vest the ownership rights to the occupants of the State Land with an ambitious objective of meeting the chronic power crisis of Jammu and Kashmir. Since the object of the Act was to use the proceeds of the transaction to fund the hydroelectric projects in J&K, it popularly came to be known as the Roshni (Light) Act. The author, in this paper, has analyzed and elucidated the provisions that are relevant for understanding the Roshni Act along with the various amendments. (more…)

Gig Economy in India: Scope for Policy Regulations & Interventions

The COVID crisis has brought out one of the major downsides of the gig economy. With the current model that majorly favors the employers and has no protection for the employee in times of crisis, it is uncertain that the gig economy can survive without major policy interventions regarding incentives for employees and regulations for employers. For the gig economy to flourish sustainably in India, an affirmative policy push is required in the direction of providing a fiscal stimulus by bringing in some characters of the ‘minimum rights approach’ of the EU. With the COVID crisis leading to the loss of physical jobs and questioning the nature of work, it seems like an apt juncture to find the right amount of regulation for the gig economy in India. (more…)

The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006

India’s colonial and post-colonial government systematically denied millions of tribal and forest-dwelling communities’ rights to their forest lands and resources. As a result of protracted grassroots struggle, the Scheduled Tribes, and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, also known as the Forests Rights Act (FRA), 2006 is a remarkable piece of legislation recognizing the individual and community rights of forest-dwelling and tribal communities. It sought to correct the ‘historic injustice’ faced by these communities integrating conservation and livelihoods. (more…)

Retrofitting Buildings in India: Balancing the Goals of Sustainability and Social Equity

Retrofitting is the process of making additions to or alterations of existing structures. In the context of buildings, retrofitting would involve making modifications to the existing building stock in an attempt to make it more energy-efficient, reduce its seismic vulnerability or adopt it as a component of hazard mitigation in general. It is important to note that buildings in India consume around 32% of the energy generated, contributing to around 22% of the annual GHG emissions. (more…)

Matters of Legislation: Dynamics between the Centre and the States

Did you ever raise an eyebrow over the fact that India with its strong federal structure is not a federation? For a sovereign nation to be called a federation, the legislative powers between the Centre and the States need to be divided in an independent manner such that they remain within their sphere. Unlike the American Federation, India was called a Union of States as its formation was not the result of an agreement by the States and no State can secede from it. According to BR Ambedkar and the Drafting Committee of 1947, the indestructibility of our federal nation made it a Union. (more…)

Gender Studies in School Education: Redefining the Policy Approach

The sorting of bodies into binary categories has been used for labor division and for identifying key differences in personality traits over the past centuries most of which has led to adverse consequences for gender identities. Gender studies, therefore, as an academic discipline aims to demystify these categories and introduces fluidity as an important aspect of gender. Most importantly, gender as a lived experience affects an individual’s social location and opportunities, therefore, its consequences demand careful examination. Gender can be defined as “both a term that refers to relationships of power, and a category of analysis and knowledge as an analytical tool”. Gender as a field of study is thus meant to teach us how to use such information for analysis to expand our understanding and execute inclusive policies.  (more…)

National Family Health Survey (2019-2020): Assessing India’s Stance on Sexual Health & Family Planning

The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) is a large, multi-round survey conducted in a representative sample of households throughout India. The survey provides State-wise information for India on fertility, maternal and child mortality and nutrition to name a few domains, to collect essential data on the health status of the population. Till date, 5 such surveys have been rolled out, the first being in 1992-93.

NFHS-5 (2019-20) was released on 12th December 2020 by the Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare Dr. Harsh Vardhan- the indicators of evaluation in the survey being areas such as population, family health, reproductive and child welfare and domestic violence to name a few. (more…)

Access to School Education for Girls in India: Impact & Interventions for Change

One of the major challenges of the education system in India is to address gender disparities in terms of enrolment and drop-out rates of the girl child. The dismal female literacy rate in 1981 was at 28.47% and increased to 65.46% in 2011 as opposed to the male literacy rate of 82.14% in 2011. The rural findings of ASER 2018 also reflected that in 2008, 20% of girls nationally in the 15-16 age group were not enrolled in schools, and in 2018 this number remained at 13.5%. (more…)

Role of Skill Development in India’s Future: Assessing the India Skills Report, 2019

India, one of the most populous countries in the world, can accrue a lot of benefits from its labor market. There lies the immense potential for India to be the largest provider of skilled labor to the world. After opening up the economy, the Government realized the significance of skill development in the country, as it plays a significant role in increasing employment opportunities for the population.   (more…)

2nd National Environmental Law and Policy Essay Writing Competition, 2021

Institutions such as CSOs and pressure groups have played a major role in raising ecological consciousness among people. However, their impact has not been greatly felt at the macro level as they struggle to voice their objections against the popular narrative of the human necessity for development. The failure of market forces, in considering the environmental consequences of their actions advocates the importance of policy intervention. Thus the need for policy-driven conservation efforts, duly supplemented by citizen activism, cannot be undermined. (more…)